The psychoanalytic model states that people are dominated by instinctive biological drives and unconscious desires and motives. The model presents human behaviour as negativistic and deterministic, which minimizes rationality and the freedom self-determination. At a group level, violent, war and other such phenomena are seen as an inevitable product of aggressive and destructive instincts present in human nature.
Freud’s ideas have now been revised or discarded due to subsequent research findings. The psychoanalytic model is no longer widely used as a way of organizing scientific observations of psychopathology. However, psychotherapy is still widely used and influential. Two of Freud’s contributions are of particular importance.
1-Freud developed important psychoanalytic techniques such as free association and dream analysis as a way of becoming acquainted with the conscious and unconscious aspects of the individual’s mind. This information led Freud to argue the importance of: –
*A-Dynamic forces of unconscious motives and ego defence.
*B-The importance of childhood experiences to later personality development.
*C-The importance of sexual factors in relation to human behaviour, although Freud used the term sex in a broader sense that that used ordinarily.
Freud also brought the idea of sex and sexuality more to the forefront and allowed it to become an “acceptable” area of study.
2-He showed that certain mental phenomena such as repression and irrational fears occurred as an attempt to cope with problems.
Other positive criticisms of psychotherapy: –
*A-Over time, the therapeutic process has been reduced in time, so reducing costs.
*B-With ethical guidelines for counselling, the counselling relationship has become more accountable.
*C-Group therapy has become more prevalent.
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