In Bandura’s (1977) formulation, four primary forms of learning are recognized: direct associative experience, vicarious learning, symbolic instruction, and symbolic logic. Since therapy is viewed as a learning experience, these four forms are often integrated into Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy. Directed skills training (behaviour rehearsal),for example, represents an application of associative experience.  Symbolic,live, and imaginal models are often used to demonstrate skills and communicate realistic contingencies. Verbal techniques   ranging from didactive instruction to logical self-scrutiny are relied upon in instances where irrational thought patterns or inadequate   coping skills are believed to be operative (cf. Ellis, 1962;   Beck,  1976; Meichenbaum, 1977).In many instances the techniques (or procedures) employed by the Cognitive-Behavioral therapist are not dramatically different from those used by more traditional behaviour therapists (although it is also easy to find procedural differences). This may reflect the fact that the primary source of ideological divergence   between these two groups lies more within the realm of presumed     process (cognition versus conditioning) rather than procedure.Since  the Cognitive-Behavioural therapist places greater emphasis on the potential importance of intrapersonal factors, however, it should be no surprise that his assessment and selected method of treatment often  reflect this cognitive-affective concern.

At the molecular level of techniques, the Cognitive-Behavioral    therapist employs many of the standard behavior modification procedures:self observation, behaviour rehearsal, contracting,  relaxation training, desensitization, and so on. At the more molar level, however, these techniques are woven into a more broad spectrum  approach that aspires to teaching coping skills that will serve the client in future stress situations. Generalization and maintenance are  strongly emphasized, along with responsible client participation in        the selection of therapy goals and procedures.Three somewhat  overlapping categories of  Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy are  distinguishable: the cognitive-restructuring therapies, the coping-skills  therapies, and the problem-solving therapies (Mahoney and Arnkoff, 1978). All share a varying emphasis on the use of  direct, vicarious, and symbolic instruction such that the person’s general adaptation skills  are enhanced. These skills  include accurate perception and evaluation  of a stressor, the ability to identify and evaluate perceived     contingencies, and the ability to participate actively in one’s own  coping through acquired cognitive skills.

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